Tag Archives: religion

• Angkor

Visit: 4th-5th April 2018

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This year was my dad’s 60th birthday, and to celebrate this milestone he had the idea of getting the whole family together in Thailand, choosing a tiny resort on the island of Ko Jum, near Krabi and Phuket in the country’s south.

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Six of us (Mum & Dad, Joe & Shaz, Natalie & I) spent five days together, travelling around the small island of maybe 1,500 people on rented scooters. Highlights included a cookery class, a fishing trip and of course Dad’s birthday party thrown by our generous host Kitima.

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There are no World Heritage Sites on the island of Ko Jum, however, and as you can imagine I could not travel all the way to Asia without shoehorning some WHS-visiting into the trip. The most exciting one in Southeast Asia to my mind was always going to be Angkor, in Cambodia, consistently rated a top 10 WHS for those in the know. Natalie and I bade farewell to the others and caught a flight on local budget carrier Air Asia from Krabi via Bangkok Don Mueang to Siam Reap.

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We arrived by night into a surprisingly modern but unsurprisingly bureaucratic airport at which we were required to pay US$30 each for visas on arrival before sharing a car with an Australian couple to our hotel in the city. Through the hotel I arranged a tuk-tuk for the next day to take us sightseeing, which is really the only way to see this enormous temple complex of some 400 square kilometres.

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Day 1

The next morning we hit the road and, after buying a 3-day pass at US$62 each, headed first for the most famous of the temples, Angkor Wat.

To give a sense of perspective, click on the map below. Below and left of centre you can see the airport with its 2.5km runway for scale. The square in the centre and that one beneath that are the moated land sites of Angkor Thom and Angkor Wat. The rectangular reservoirs of West Mebon, Preah Khan (both still water-filled) and East Mebon (now dry) are enormous. They are called barays and nobody really knows how the 12th century Khmer people managed to dig them. Their purpose was probably part practical, in order to store water for the many people who lived here, but it is likely there was also a spiritual element.

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Angkor Wat

The many dozens of different temples located at Angkor are the product of the ancient Khmer civilisation and were built mostly in the 12th century. Angkor Wat is 2 square kilometres and is more of a city itself than a mere temple.

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The central temple comprises a pyramid of three levels, surrounded by two concentric galleries that contain statues and wall carvings known as bas-reliefs.

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Although there were probably several thousand tourists at this single temple, its sheer size meant it did not feel very crowded. Most of our fellow visitors seemed not to notice what to me were the highlights of the visit: the bas-reliefs.

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Maintained in remarkably good condition, these 50 metre-long carvings depict epic scenes from Hindu and Khmer mythology and history, such as the Procession of Suryavarman II (above). This procession takes place across three different levels, and depicts the very king who oversaw the building of Angkor Wat with his thousands of men and beasts.

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My favourite bas-relief was the Churning of the Sea of Milk (below). In this tale 92 asura gods pull alternately at either end of the giant snake Vasuki, which is coiled around Mount Mandara. This causes the hill to rotate, churning up the sea of milk for 1,000 years to produce the elixir of immortality. I especially liked the small details, like the fish in the bottom right of the picture below that have been chopped to bits by the ferocity of the churning!

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Angkor Thom, South Gate

The second place our driver took us was the enormous ancient city of Angkor Thom. Today much of its area is wooded, but in the 12th century it was a bustling metropolis. A square with edges of 3km in length, it is surrounded by a wall and a moat. The best-restored gate is the south entrance, where the bridge across the moat is flanked by statues of gods and demons churning the sea of milk – just as depicted in the bas-relief back at Angkor Wat.

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Bayon

At the centre of Angkor Thom is the Bayon, which was the State Temple of King Jayavarman VII. Because it is located right in the middle of the city – which is the most auspicious place – later kings, instead of building their own state temples, added to the Bayon. For this reason it is a highly complex hodgepodge of a building of great interest to historians.

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The most striking features of the Bayon are its many ‘face towers’, smiling serenely at all angles.

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Elephant Terrace

Leaving Bayon, we continued to Ta Prohm, stopping off on the way at the Elephant Terrace and the Leper King Terrace in the north of Angkor Thom.

These once formed the bases of two ‘royal pavilions’. These were apparently the only structures we saw at Angkor that were not religious in purpose.

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Ta Prohm

Ta Prohm – our final temple for day 1 – has been left in the state of decay in which it was originally discovered. This was the idea of Cambodia’s former French colonial administrators and I think it was a stroke of brilliance. Not only is it picturesque to see the crumbling walls dominated by great trees, but it also reminds us that most of these temples have undergone a great deal of renovation since their ‘rediscovery’ in modern times.

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The strangler figs and silk-cotton trees that have grown so large were probably dropped as seeds by birds. The roots then worked their way through the masonry to the ground and as they grew they split and crumbled the temple’s walls to their present state.

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Back in Siam Reap that evening we went out for dinner on ‘Pub Street’ where the beer was cheap and Natalie managed to find a dish containing potato and cheese (not ingredients you come across often in Southeast Asia!).

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Day 2

Preah Khan

Having taken the ‘Small Circuit’ tour the previous day, this morning we hired the same driver and set off on the ‘Grand Circuit’, which takes in different temples but didn’t seem noticeably grander (how could it be?). We zipped past Angkor Wat, in through Angkor Thom’s south gate and out again through its north before arriving at the temple of Preah Khan.

Thought to have been a Buddhist university employing 1,000 teachers, it held special significance because it is thought to be built on the site of a major battle won by the Khmer when they recaptured Angkor from their arch-rivals the Cham (a people whose heartland at the time was in modern-day Vietnam).

Buddhism and Hinduism have much in common, which is why we see so many Hindu references at the site of a Buddhist civilisation. One of the most interesting things about Angkor is that when much of it was built, under Jayavarman VII, the Khmer civilisation was in a period of transition from Hinduism to Buddhism.

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Neak Pean

The next site was unique in being a water shrine, consisting of a cruciform pond arrangement with a central tower, itself situated in the middle of a great baray that has been recently refilled with water.

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It was inspired by the mythical Himalayan lake Anavatapta, which is known for its healing powers and is the source of four great rivers.

Neak Pean is accessible via a long boardwalk to the centre of the baray with no fencing to keep you from falling in!

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Ta Som

Another temple that has been left in the state in which it was discovered, Ta Som was referred to by the 12th century Khmer by the poetic name ‘Jewel of the Propitious White Elephant’.

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East Mebon

This temple has little in the way of surrounding buildings because it was originally located in the middle of a huge 7.5 x 1.8 km baray some 5 metres deep. The baray is now dry and it is impossible on the ground to get a sense of what it used to be like, but if you look on satellite imagery you can still make out its outline.

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Pre Rup

The final temple of our visit, Pre Rup was the State Temple of King Rajendravarman, who came a little later than Jayavarman VII.

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By this point we had seen quite enough temples for our short time in Cambodia and it was time to start making our way back to the airport.

Visiting Angkor can be a slightly overwhelming experience on account of its sheer scale. But it must be one of the most awe-inspiring World Heritage Sites and one that could occupy a great deal of time if you had the luxury of several weeks there.

Although a more recent civilisation than the Egyptians and the Romans, it is still incredible to consider what these people built with the basic tools that would have been available during what we would call in Europe the Dark Ages. In fact what impressed me the most, on reflection, is not the temples themselves but the sheer scale of civil engineering required to dig out millions of cubic metres of reservoir for the grand, mysterious barays.

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• Abbey of St Gall

Visit: 10th March 2018

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Following on from our morning visit to Bavaria’s Wieskirche the four of us drove across the Austro-German border to Bregenz, an Austrian city on the eastern shore of Lake Constance. Our primary purpose was to have lunch there and thereby save a little compared with eating in our notoriously expensive destination of Switzerland. There wasn’t much to see in Bregenz so we had a decent enough meal and moved on.

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20 miles to the west lies the Swiss city of St Gallen, home to the second World Heritage Site of our weekend. This is a place with a long history as a monastic centre of learning, having played host for many centuries to monks who were particularly prodigious manuscript writers.

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The monastery buildings are generally quite plain. This is not inappropriate for a monastery, but it stands in contrast to the Manueline majesty of Belém or Tomar in Portugal (you really should go to see the latter one). The highlight of St Gallen is the cathedral, which was rebuilt in the Baroque style in the 18th century.

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The interior is wide and open, which pleased Gokul more than the relatively small Rococo church we had encountered in Germany earlier that day. I note that the colour green, which is the predominant theme in the ceiling, is quite unusual in church interiors – though I am not sure what the reason is for having used it here…

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We spent a bit of time milling around St Gallen where highlights included:

  • buying the obligatory Swiss chocolates;
  • consuming the worst value-for-money bottle of water I have ever shelled out for (c.£3.50, warm and a taste like Hounslow tap water); and
  • experiencing an innovative but excessively spartan public convenience – in which the toilet itself doubles up as the handwash basin – eugh.

Following which we sped up a valley alongside the Rhine toward what would, for 3 of us (Nowell excepted), be a new country. Liechtenstein is only Europe’s fourth smallest state, but that says more about how small the Vatican City, San Marino and Monaco are than it does about how big Liechtenstein is.

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Unfortunately the country does not have a single World Heritage Site, so we had little to do but spend the night in the small selection of local bars. I can’t say we did anything particularly Liechtenstinian, given that we ate pizza, drank beer and played pool.

Liechtenstein is one of only two doubly landlocked countries in the world (the other is Uzbekistan). It is host to no foreign embassies, it uses the Swiss franc and it is a member of the Schengen area – so getting in is easy. The capital, Vaduz, is not its largest city – but since nobody has ever heard of Schaan I decided we would stay in the capital anyway. Below is the view from our balcony, where the mountains in the background are in Switzerland.

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When Sunday came it was time for us to head back to Munich to drop off Gokul and KC at their house and Nowell at the station. He was continuing on to India for a business trip, but since his flight was from Frankfurt he needed to take a train there first. That left me to fly back to London on my own, which I think is a first for a lads’ trip like this.

Many try to go the distance, few succeed.

• Pilgrimage Church of Wies

Visit: 10th March 2018

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Last autumn two of my friends, Gokul and KC, moved to Munich to start new jobs. They joined Ross, Nowell and me in Bremen in January – but now it was time to meet them in Munich. The plan was not to stay in Munich but to hire a car and get out on the road, visiting four countries and two World Heritage Sites in one weekend.

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We spent the first night in rural Bavaria, where the only bar within a 20 mile radius that was open past midnight was run by some gentlemen from Tennessee. The next morning we were up early to visit the Wies Kirche. Located in southern Germany close to the Austrian border and the Alps, it is an isolated church located apart from any town or village. This was I think done deliberately in order for it to benefit from the bucolic scenery that surrounds it.

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Though small, the church is a fine example of the Rococo style. Built in the mid-18th century, this was a time when painters produced little of lasting significance, ceding the stage to architects and composers. The church was constructed as a site of pilgrimage after the area begun to be visited by people who had heard of the local statue of Jesus that wept. Originally made as an ordinary carving of Christ in chains, it was considered too graphic for the local community and hidden away. A local woman decided to store it in her bedroom (a little creepy?) but was shocked one day when tears emerged from its eyes. The church today houses the famous statue and has been visited by countless Christian pilgrims ever since.

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Gokul declared himself “very disappointed” with the church on account of its size, and I suppose I can see where he was coming from. The ornateness of the carvings and the colour and detail in the ceiling make it quite special, though, even if it is more compact than most famous church buildings. Perhaps that was why we were the only ones visiting at the time?

After finishing at the church (which was free to enter) we got back in the car and headed on toward Switzerland, Austria and the Alpine foothills around Lake Constance.

• Byblos

Visit: 25th May 2017

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One of the best aspects of my year at business school has been the new friends I’ve made and the diversity of their nationalities. So when two of my coursemates from Lebanon offered to show a group of us their country I was intrigued. I think it’s fair to say that this is not a country I would have gone to off my own bat, so when I heard there was a trip on it was clear that I should seize a rare opportunity to visit this region with the aid of local knowledge.

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So about a dozen of us booked flights to Beirut and 5 nights in an Airbnb. Our hosts, Bassam and Hala, arranged for us a minibus and a programme of sightseeing/partying. Byblos – the only World Heritage Site we were able to visit – came early on in the trip. It is located on the Mediterranean coast about and hour’s drive north of Beirut. We travelled there via a beach and a fantastic winery, where we had a classic Lebanese lunch including fateh, hummous and batata harra.

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That’s not our whole group there because amusingly unfortunately Jason, Walter and Dayo had missed our flight out the previous day after leaving too late for the airport and getting stuck in traffic. They were able to talk BA into letting them onto the next day’s flight for no extra cost, but it was a shame they missed out on this first day.

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We got to Byblos in the early evening and walked in along an ancient entrance route lined with Corinthian columns. When I mentioned this was an old city, what I meant is it has been continuously inhabited since the Neolithic era (7 or 8,000 BC), making it definitely one of the oldest cities in the world. It was under the Phoenicians – a Mediterranean civilisation centred around modern-day Lebanon – that it rose to prominence. The name Byblos comes not from Phoenician (in which it was called Gebal) but from the contemporaneous Ancient Greeks. Meaning ‘book’, the name’s origin comes from the importance of the city in trade with Ancient Egypt, from which it imported large quantities of papyrus paper.

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The picture above is of the citadel in the heart of ancient Byblos. This dates from the Crusades, when it was built by the Christians using stone from the remnants of the Roman garrison that had previously been set up here. This area, on an outcrop sticking into the sea, has not seen modern building work on top of it. The currently-inhabited part of the city is visible in the background, rising up into the hills that run down the length of the country.

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Lebanon is a complicated nation, governed by a constitution that delicately ensures an even distribution of power among the various ethnic and religious groups who were so violently opposed to one another during the country’s civil war in the 1970s and 80s. From its independence from France in 1943 until the outbreak of war in 1975 Lebanon was a glamorous destination for the internationally mobile. Frank Sinatra and Marlon Brando used to take their yachts into Byblos harbour and Beirut was the Dubai of its day. Since peace was restored in 1990 the country has never managed to restore its allure to the outside world, which of course is a shame because it has much to offer.

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Lebanon contains the largest remaining community of Christians in the Middle East, and they coexist peacefully with the Sunnis, Shia and countless smaller sects such as the Druze. This boy, celebrating his first Communion, was a good reminder of that. The country has seen more conflict since the Civil War ended, when Israel severely bombarded it following rocket attacks in 2006, but the system did not fall apart.

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Beirut, many of its buildings still scarred by bullet holes, was a charming city to spend most of our time in. Although it has its no-go areas (in particular, the Foreign Office warns against travel into the southern neighbourhoods controlled by Hezbollah), it has plenty of nice parts. We toured the campus of the American University of Beirut (set up by Americans but no longer run by them), the marina, the student neighbourhood of Hamra and the bars of Gourard Street.

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Beirut’s main Sunni mosque is an exquisite building, particularly on the inside. Since Islam does not permit depiction of the human form Islamic art focuses instead on geometric patterns and Arabic script.

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Our other day’s excursion Hala took us far up into the hills to track down Lebanon’s national tree. The cedar features on the country’s flag and its banknotes, and has long been prized for its properties as a building material. The tree flourishes in cooler, damper conditions than prevail down by the coast – which is why it is quite often seen here in England too, nowadays.

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Like when I visited Madeira last December it was hard to believe, up here in the cool mist, that it had been warm and sunny only a few hours earlier down by the coast. Our guide in the cedar forest showed us ‘the actual tree’ upon which the flag design is based, though I was a little sceptical myself when I saw it.

When all was done we felt sad to have to leave Lebanon. The country had been very hospitable and fun to spend time in, and all excellently organised by Hala. Lebanon has four other WHSs, but unfortunately they are in areas that are a little riskier for Western tourists (though Bassam would contest that!). If the war in Syria is ever resolved and the region becomes a little less volatile I would love to return to Lebanon and see the rest of it – but for now, I have seen plenty enough to know that I like it.

• Assisi, the Basilica of San Francesco and Other Franciscan Sites

Visit: 18th February 2017

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After two nights in Rome Natalie and I got up early to catch a train 90 minutes out of the city into Umbria. Our destination was the hill town of Assisi, a site of pilgrimage for followers of the famous 13th century monk St Francis. From the station it is a ten minute bus ride up to the town, where we had a hotel booked in the centre. I had expected hordes of tourists (like us) but it was strangely deserted our entire time there.

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We started out at the city’s main church, the Basilica of St Francis. It sits at the far west end of the town and the promontory on which the town is built. Inside, the basilica is split into two floors, which I found unusual. We entered at the lower level, which is adorned with frescoes – some of them painted by the early Renaissance visionary Giotto di Bondone. I got told off for taking the photo below, but it gives you an idea of what I’m describing.

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In a crypt beneath the basilica’s lower level are the remains of St Francis himself. In case you are unfamiliar with his story, St Francis was a born to a wealthy family but renounced his worldly possessions in order to devote his life to God. He travelled around Italy to preach and went on to form an order of monks who would live a life of poverty as he did. That order is still going strong today, so you see monks and nuns frequently in Assisi.

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Assisi was once a Roman settlement, as the Temple of Minerva (the same goddess once venerated in the City of Bath) on the town’s main square attests. Like the Pantheon in Rome, it probably owes its survival to its conversion into a church, which is Baroque in style on the inside. On the outside we still have the original Roman front complete with tall Corinthian columns.

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From the main square we walked uphill, passing through a multistory car park built among Roman ruins. At the town’s highest point is a castle keep – the command post for the walls that surround the whole of Assisi. I was able to clearly make out the city of Perugia some 20 kilometres away.

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That evening we had a decent meal, though not as good as the previous night in Rome. I ate the local dish of roasted pigeon, which, as the waiter informed me, is meant to be eaten with your hands. The following morning we had to make our way to Perugia San Francesco d’Assisi – Umbria International Airport from which we were flying back to Stansted. There are no bus links between the airport and Assisi so were were reliant on an expensive taxi service. The silver lining was that our driver offered to detour via the Basilica Santa Maria degli Angeli, located 5km from Assisi. This was fortunate because the building contains a very interesting artefact and is one of the ‘Other Franciscan Sites’ mentioned in this World Heritage Site’s title.

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The artefact in question is in fact the very site at which St Francis is supposed to have received the word of God. It is a tiny frescoed church, barely large enough for a small group of people to gather in, housed within the more recent basilica. This was well worth coming to see, and – like the crypt in Assisi’s main basilica – felt like a very holy place, and in a different and possibly more special way than the grand cathedrals of Milan, Venice or Rome.

I enjoyed this WHS for its importance in the history of Christianity and its Roman connections, as well as the prettiness of the views over Umbria. We were lucky that it was so quiet when we were there, but I would recommend as a one-night excursion from Rome if you are interested in getting out into the Italian heartland.

• Historic Centre of Rome, the Properties of the Holy See in that City Enjoying Extraterritorial Rights and San Paolo Fuori le Mura

Visit: 17th February 2017

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This World Heritage Site really takes the biscuit in terms of name length. I don’t write these things – bureaucrats in Paris do. But the general theme of the site is sensible enough: it is the centre of Rome, the Eternal City. Since the Vatican City is located entirely within Rome, we were able to visit both in the same day (though a day is far from ideal for a city that has been at the centre of Western civilisation on and off for the last 3,000 years).

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After fuelling up on pizza in the Vatican we set off on foot to see the sights. In the WHS name you will notice the reference to ‘the Properties of the Holy See … Enjoying Extraterritorial Rights’. This is because the Catholic Church’s Holy See owns a set of buildings outside of the Vatican City proper which enjoy diplomatic immunity similar to that of an embassy. There are at least a dozen buildings dotted throughout the city, as well as a few others elsewhere in Italy that are not subject to Italian law. I planned our route from St Peter’s so we would pass a few of them – and now I will take you on a tour of some of them.

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Palace of the Holy Office – from which Catholic doctrine is promulgated and defended

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Palazzo dei Convertendi – former home of the painter Raphael

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Palazzo Pio – home of Canadian embassy to the Holy See

At this point we have reached the bottom of the Via della Conciliazione and are next to the Castel Sant’Angelo. This is not a Holy See building, but is a 2nd century cylindrical castle built as a mausoleum for the emperor Hadrian. He is becoming a recurring theme in my WHS visits, being the man behind the eponymous wall back home and the luxurious villa complex in nearby Tivoli.

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We didn’t go inside, but instead crossed the Tiber on one of its ornate footbridges. The next sight we saw was another Roman relic, bearing a certain resemblance to the castle, above. This, however, is not a castle but a temple-cum-church: the Pantheon. It, too, is a work of the Hadrian era and consists of a cylindrical structure with a porticoed front and a magnificent dome with a hole in the top.

It is quite remarkable that this building is still in such good condition, and that is due to the fact that it has been in permanent use since it was built in the second century. Originally it was a temple to the Roman gods, but following the decline of the Roman empire in the 7th century it was consecrated as a church and has been one ever since (meaning it is free to enter!). The dome is still the largest unreinforced concrete dome in the world. The hole in the top is known as an oculus and lets in the sunlight in a concentrated beam that sweeps through the interior throughout the day. The Pantheon was a hugely influential building – inspiring, for example, Thomas Jefferson’s design for the University of Virginia that I visited five months earlier.

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Not far from the Pantheon is another extraterritorial building. The Palazzo della Cancelleria is a Renaissance palace that is nowadays the residence of a controversial former Boston cardinal (if you’ve seen the film Spotlight you’ll recall the scandal he was involved in).

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Palazzo della Cancelleria – home of the Papal Chancellery

We then walked via the Colosseum (which Natalie and I had both visited before) back to our hotel near the central station, stopping on the way at the Basilica di Santa Maria Maggiore – which is another of the Holy See’s properties. This basilica is a fifth century church, its interior decorated with carved wood panels supported by Ionic columns.

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A day’s sightseeing thoroughly done, we were keen to have an authentic but inexpensive Roman dining experience. We were not disappointed by the place we found, located in a student district 20 minutes walk from our hotel. My highlight was a simple pasta primi piatto of pancetta and parmesan.

• Vatican City

Visit: 17th February 2017

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The Vatican City is quite an unusual place in many respects, not least for being the world’s smallest country. At less than half a square kilometre it is 2.6 x 10-8 the size of Russia, the largest country. Despite being so small, there is plenty to keep the visitor occupied.

Natalie and I had talked about going to Rome for a few years and, whilst both of us had been before, we had not visited the city since the Age of World Heritage Site Visiting began. We flew from Stansted to Rome’s low-cost airport, Ciampino, for a very reasonable price and caught a dangerously overcrowded coach into the city centre. We had arrived late at night, so we were able to get up and out into Rome’s rush hour by 9 o’clock the next morning.

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The famous Sistine Chapel is located within the Vatican Museums. I decided it was probably worth paying an extra €4 to pre-book tickets and avoid a seriously long queue, though in the event there wasn’t a massive line. The museums are filled with the Papal art collection, which is one of the finest in the world (quite possibly the best). The galleries and corridors contain masterpieces of the Renaissance and the Baroque as well as hundreds of Roman-era statues. Some of the most impressive include the Belvedere Apollo and the statue of Laocoön and His Sons.

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These are some of the most admired pieces of art the Classical period left us, and they sit perfectly in a small open courtyard in the Vatican. I wondered if the Pope ever walks around on his own after the tourists have left and takes in the magnificence of his domain.

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The closer you get to the Sistine Chapel the more crowded it becomes. For the last half an hour or so we were filing through narrow corridors with thousands of other visitors, traipsing inexorably toward one of the most famous sights in the world. In the process it is easy to miss the fine collection of 20th century artworks, including pieces by Chagall, Dalí and even Francis Bacon.

The chapel itself is well-known enough I needn’t describe it here. As part of Michelangelo’s greatest masterpiece, the panel in the ceiling where Adam touches the hand of God is smaller than I expected, but the huge Last Judgement scene on the wall is just as impactful as it could be. Unlike the Last Supper in Milan there is no atmospheric control system, so tourists file through the chapel in perpetuity. If they were to start sending people through in carefully-controlled batches I’m sure the chapel would become almost impossible to visit.

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The gardens of the Vatican deserve a mention. Visitors are allowed in only a small portion of them, but it is easy enough to take in views of most of the rest of them through various windows.

After the Sistine Chapel we foolishly exited the museums in order to join the queue for St Peter’s Basilica in the famous (circular) square. My mistake was not to realise there is a way of getting into the basilica from the museum complex, bypassing the slow-moving line. When we eventually made it inside (there is no entrance charge) we found ourselves inside the world’s largest church. I found it hard to really appreciate the magnitude of the building, as when something is built in the right proportions its size is not necessarily as obvious as you might think. Inside the entrance is Michelangelo’s marble Pietà statue, which is something I have wanted to see for some time.

One of the basilica’s most notable features is its enormous dome, which greatly influenced Sir Christopher Wren’s design for St Paul’s Cathedral in London. Standing beneath it, looking up at the tiny people walking around the inside of the dome finally brought home to me how large the building really is.

Of course it is not just its size that sets the basilica apart. The whole interior and exterior is of a level of ornateness that surpasses most other churches. This is why it is widely acclaimed as the greatest church in all of Christendom.