Visit: 17th February 2017
This World Heritage Site really takes the biscuit in terms of name length. I don’t write these things – bureaucrats in Paris do. But the general theme of the site is sensible enough: it is the centre of Rome, the Eternal City. Since the Vatican City is located entirely within Rome, we were able to visit both in the same day (though a day is far from ideal for a city that has been at the centre of Western civilisation on and off for the last 3,000 years).
After fuelling up on pizza in the Vatican we set off on foot to see the sights. In the WHS name you will notice the reference to ‘the Properties of the Holy See … Enjoying Extraterritorial Rights’. This is because the Catholic Church’s Holy See owns a set of buildings outside of the Vatican City proper which enjoy diplomatic immunity similar to that of an embassy. There are at least a dozen buildings dotted throughout the city, as well as a few others elsewhere in Italy that are not subject to Italian law. I planned our route from St Peter’s so we would pass a few of them – and now I will take you on a tour of some of them.
At this point we have reached the bottom of the Via della Conciliazione and are next to the Castel Sant’Angelo. This is not a Holy See building, but is a 2nd century cylindrical castle built as a mausoleum for the emperor Hadrian. He is becoming a recurring theme in my WHS visits, being the man behind the eponymous wall back home and the luxurious villa complex in nearby Tivoli.
We didn’t go inside, but instead crossed the Tiber on one of its ornate footbridges. The next sight we saw was another Roman relic, bearing a certain resemblance to the castle, above. This, however, is not a castle but a temple-cum-church: the Pantheon. It, too, is a work of the Hadrian era and consists of a cylindrical structure with a porticoed front and a magnificent dome with a hole in the top.
It is quite remarkable that this building is still in such good condition, and that is due to the fact that it has been in permanent use since it was built in the second century. Originally it was a temple to the Roman gods, but following the decline of the Roman empire in the 7th century it was consecrated as a church and has been one ever since (meaning it is free to enter!). The dome is still the largest unreinforced concrete dome in the world. The hole in the top is known as an oculus and lets in the sunlight in a concentrated beam that sweeps through the interior throughout the day. The Pantheon was a hugely influential building – inspiring, for example, Thomas Jefferson’s design for the University of Virginia that I visited five months earlier.
Not far from the Pantheon is another extraterritorial building. The Palazzo della Cancelleria is a Renaissance palace that is nowadays the residence of a controversial former Boston cardinal (if you’ve seen the film Spotlight you’ll recall the scandal he was involved in).
We then walked via the Colosseum (which Natalie and I had both visited before) back to our hotel near the central station, stopping on the way at the Basilica di Santa Maria Maggiore – which is another of the Holy See’s properties. This basilica is a fifth century church, its interior decorated with carved wood panels supported by Ionic columns.
A day’s sightseeing thoroughly done, we were keen to have an authentic but inexpensive Roman dining experience. We were not disappointed by the place we found, located in a student district 20 minutes walk from our hotel. My highlight was a simple pasta primi piatto of pancetta and parmesan.